Monday, April 17, 2017

Fusarium mycotoxin in grain

Five toxic fungal secondary metabolites (mycotoxins)are considered to be economically and toxicologically important worldwide: aflatoxin, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol and derivatives, zearalenone and derivatives, and fumonisins.

Mycotxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi (molds). Mycotoxins are very powerful protein synthesis inhibitors, so they can affect the DNA, which is a problem in and of itself. Because they affect the DNA, the cells start multiplying abnormally which can eventually develop into cancer. That mycotoxins can and do cause oesophageal cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer.
Mycotoxins production in grain can begin in the field an continue throughout storage. Mycotoxin production is dependent mainly in both well defined ranges of temperature and water activity. But in turn, the optimum climatic conditions for mycotoxin in infected grains depends on the substrate, Fusarium species and isolate.

Experts of FAO estimate that 25% of the world’s food crops are affected by mycotoxins each year with substantial impact of Fusarium species to food contamination. Fusarium species infection of cereal ears causes three undesired effects:
*Reduction of grain yield and quality
*Economic losses in livestock fed with contaminated cereals and the consequent reduced animal production
*Mycotoxins carryover to food products resulting in potential toxicity to human.

Fumonisins are carcinogenic mycotoxins by some Fusarium, primarily F. verticillioides growing in maize. At least 28 fumonisins (fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, and fumonisin B3) analogs are now known and three of these occur naturally in maize world wide.
Fusarium mycotoxin in grain
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