Wednesday, October 06, 2021

Toxicity of aflatoxin in longer period

Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow in soil, hay, decaying vegetation, and grains.

Aflatoxins have been associated with various diseases like aflatoxicosis and other health problems in humans, livestock and domestic animals globally.

The liver is the main organ affected by the toxic effects of aflatoxin. Ingestion of low levels over a long period has been implicated in primary liver cancer, chronic hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhoses and impaired nutrient conversion.

Epidemiological and animal studies also demonstrated aflatoxin carcinogenicity to remote organs from the liver, including the kidney, the pancreas, the bladder, bone, viscera, central nervous system, etc. (Toxins (Basel) 2019, 11, 176.).

Aflatoxins were reported to cause lung and skin occupational cancers via inhalation and direct contact, respectively.

In animal experiments, AFB1 has been shown to induce thymic aplasia, reduce T lymphocyte function and number, suppress phagocytic activity, and reduce complement activity. Many studies conducted showed that exposure to aflatoxin in contaminated food results in suppression of the cell-mediated immune responses.

Human and animals get exposed to aflatoxins by two major routes
*Direct ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated foods or ingestion of aflatoxins carried over from feed into milk and milk products like cheese and powdered milk as well as other animal tissues mainly as AFM1

*By inhalation of dust particles of aflatoxins especially AFB1 in contaminated foods in industries and factories.
Toxicity of aflatoxin in longer period

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