Monday, December 13, 2021

Celiac disease

Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated intestinal disorder of the small intestine caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. It is a different disease than a food allergy.

Gluten is an alcohol soluble protein fraction present in wheat, rye, barley, oat and their crossbred varieties (e.g., triticale) play a role in triggering the celiac disease. The main protein in wheat gluten is named gliadin; the related protein in rye and barley gluten are termed horde and secalin, respectively.

The consumption of gluten proteins drives adverse reactions in predisposed individuals who suffer from celiac disease, wheat allergies, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, or gluten ataxia.

Gluten contains approximately 15% proline and 35% glutamines residues which limit proteolysis by gastrointestinal enzymes, thus generating toxic peptides.

When the prolamins from these grains are ingested by an individual with celiac disease, the body's immune system responds abnormally to gluten proteins, resulting in inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine, and reduced absorption of iron, calcium and vitamins.

Celiac disease is one of the most frequent hypersensitivities, affecting around 1% of the world’s population. It is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals and is based on a variable combination of intestinal and extra intestinal signs and symptoms that are specific to CD antibodies, HLA-DQ2/8 haplotypes, and enteropathy.

Gluten sensitivity cannot be cured, it accompanies the entire life of the patient, however, by avoiding the factor that triggers the disease and maintaining the proper diet, it can be treated perfectly (the abnormal process stops and the intestinal tract regenerates, and the symptoms disappear).

Patients with Celiac disease have a wide variety of symptoms: weight loss, chronic diarrhea, fatigue, delayed onset puberty, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and other extra-intestinal symptoms. In the oral cavity, enamel defects and recurrent aphthous stomatitis are the most common symptoms.

Contamination of gluten-free foods with gluten-containing material can occur at many stages of food production, from the fields, farms, mills, and factories, as well as handcraft enterprises, restaurants, and households.
Celiac disease

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