Tuesday, April 04, 2023

Food-borne intoxications

Foodborne illness any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food. Foodborne illnesses classified into:
-Food borne infections and
-Food borne intoxications

Food intoxication refers to the ingestion of food containing preformed bacterial toxins which are produced as a result of bacterial growth in the food, including bacterially produced exotoxins, which can happen even when the microbe that produced the toxin is no longer present or able to cause infection.

Food borne intoxications can be classified into:
-Bacterial intoxications
-Fungal intoxications
-Chemical intoxication
-Plant toxicants
-Poisonous animals

Any person can get this intoxication, which is widespread and relatively frequent. About 25% of U.S. population is carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

Food-borne intoxications are caused due to:
*Naturally occurring toxins in some foods including: Lathyrism (β-oxalylamino-alanine), Endemic ascites (Pyrrolizidinealkaloids)
*Toxins produced by certain bacteria including: Botulism, Staphyloccal toxins
*Toxins produced by some fungi including: Aflatoxin, Ergot, Fusarium toxins
*Due to toxins produced by some algae like, Planktonicdin of lagellates, Diatoms, Cyanobacteria
*Due to food-borne chemical poisoning

Usually, the incubation period of food intoxication is very short, 4-24 hours.

The important bacterial species that are most commonly involved in food poisoning outbreaks are Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. B. cereus causes foodborne intoxication due to two distinct toxins produced by the bacteria. These toxins cause two recognized types of illness. Diarrheal illness is associated with a heat-labile protein. Emetic (vomiting) illness is associated with a heat-stable protein

Food poisoning or intoxication can be prevented by adopting good hygienic practice with proper methods and conditions of food handling, storage, and preservation.
Food-borne intoxications

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